Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in a land that is now the country of Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer).
History of Egypt
The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.
Wealth of the Nile
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture.
With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.
The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known planked boats, Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty, made with the Hittites.
Cities of the Nile
The cities of Ancient Egypt developed along the Nile River due to the fertile farmland along its banks. The typical city had a wall around it with two entrances. There was a major road down the center of the town with smaller, narrow streets connecting to it. The houses and buildings were made of mud-brick. If a building was destroyed in a flood, generally a new building was just built on top of it.
Some cities in Ancient Egypt were specialized. For example, there were political towns that housed government workers and officials such as the capital cities of Memphis and Thebes. Other towns were religious towns centered around a major temple. Still other towns were built to house workers for major construction projects like the Pyramids.
The largest and most important cities in Ancient Egypt were the capital cities. The capital city moved over the course of time. The first capital city was Thinis. Some of the later capitals include Memphis, Thebes, Avaris, Akhetaten, Tanis, Sais, and Alexandria.
Memphis was the capital of Egypt from 2950 BC to 2180 BC. Some historians estimate that, during its peak, Memphis was the largest city in the world. Memphis continued to be a large and important city in Egypt even after the capital was moved to Thebes. It was also a center of religion with many temples. The main god of Memphis was Ptah, the creator god and the god of craftsmen.
Thebes first became the capital of Egypt around 2135 BC. It served off and on as capital until around 1279 BC. Thebes and Memphis generally rivaled each other as the largest and greatest cities in Egypt. Thebes was an important political and religious city. It housed several major temples including the Temple of Luxor and the Temple of Karnak. The Valley of the Kings is located near the city of Thebes.
Alexandria served as the capital city from 332 BC to 641 AD. The city became the capital when Alexander the Great conquered Egypt and one of his generals established the Ptolemy Dynasty. Alexandria remained the capital for nearly a thousand years. In ancient times, the city was famous for the Lighthouse of Alexandria, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was also known as the intellectual center of the world and home to the largest library in the world. Alexandria is located in northern Egypt on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is the second largest city in Egypt today.
Amarna was the capital city of Egypt during the reign of the Pharaoh Akhenaten. The pharaoh created his own religion that worshiped the god Aten. He built the city to honor Aten. It was abandoned shortly after Akhenaten died.
Ten Plagues of Egypt
According to the Hebrew Bible, Moses was a former Egyptian prince who later in life became a religious leader and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. After killing an Egyptian slave-master, because the slave master was smiting a Hebrew to death, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian, where he encountered The Angel of the Lord. God then sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. In order to compel the Pharaoh Ramses II to free the slaves, God unleashed the Ten Plagues of Egypt, which terrorized the Egyptian people until Pharaoh finally capitulated after the tenth plague, triggering the Exodus of the Hebrew people.
Fall of Egypt
Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a sizable portion of the Near East, after which it entered a period of slow decline. During the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, the Achaemenid Persians, and the Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great. The Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed in the aftermath of Alexander's death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.
Ancient Egypt is also believed to be where the Illuminati were first established by Lucifer and acted as advisers to the royals of the Egyptian dynasties. The original Illuminati, like the modern on, sought to usher in a new world that would not be under the sway of fate or destiny. Overtime, their numbers grew within Ancient Egypt, and even after the fall of the desert empire their influence had expanded to the point where they not only infiltrated the Roman Empire but also used its power across other nations to further expand their reach throughout history.